This Sura is the sequel to
Al-Baqarah and the invitation therein is continued to the people of the Book. In Al- Baqarah the Jews were pointedly invited to accept the Guidance and in this Sura the Christians have particularly been admonished to give up their erroneous beliefs and accept the Guidance of the Quran. At the same time
the Muslims have been instructed to nourish the virtues that may enable them to carry out their obligations and spread the Divine Guidance.
The Period of Revelation
This Sura consists of four discourses The first discourse (vv. 1-32) was probably revealed soon after the Battle of Badr. The second discourse (vv. 33-63) was revealed in 9 A. H. on the occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians of Najran. The third discourse (vv. 64-120) appears to have been revealed immediately after the first one. The fourth discourse (vv. 121-200) was revealed after the Battle of Uhud.
Though these discourses were revealed at different periods and on different occasions
they are so inter-linked and so inter-connected iii regard to their aim
object and central theme that they make together one continuous whole. This Sura has been especially addressed to two groups-the people of the Book (the Jews and the Christians) and the followers of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). The message has been extended to the Jews and the Christians in continuation of the invitation in Al-Baqarah
in which they have been admonished for their erroneous beliefs and evil morals and advised to accept
as a remedy
the Truth of the Quran. They have been told here that Muhammad (Allah's peace be
upon him) taught the same right way of life that had been preached by their own Prophets; that it alone was the Right Way
the way of Allah; hence any deviation from it will be wrong even according to their own Scriptures. The second group
who had been declared to be the best Community in Al-Baqarah and appointed torch-bearers of the Truth and entrusted with the responsibility of reforming the world
have been given additional instructions in continuation of those given in the preceding Sura. The Muslims have been warned to learn a lesson from the religious and moral degeneration of the former communities and to refrain from treading in their footsteps. Instructions have also been given about the reformative work they had to perform. Besides this
they have been taught how to deal with the people of the Book and the hypocrites who were putting different kinds of hindrances in the way of Allah. Above all
they have been warned to guard against those weaknesses which had come to the surface in the Battle Uhud.
The following is the background of the Sura: (1) The Believers had met with all sorts of trials and hardships about which they had been forewarned in Al- Baqarah. Though they had come out victorious in the Battle of Badr
they were not out of danger yet. Their victory had aroused the enmity of all those powers in Arabia which were opposed to the Islamic Movement. Signs of threatening storms had begun to appear on all sides and the Muslims were in a perpetual state of fear and anxiety. It looked as if the whole Arabian world around the tiny state of Al- Madinah which was no more than a village state at that time-was bent upon blotting out its very existence. This state of war was also adversely affecting its economy
which had already been badly disturbed by the influx of the Muslim refugees from Makkah. (2) Then there was the disturbing problem of the Jewish clans who lived in the suburbs of Al-Madinah. They were discarding the treaties of alliance they had made with the Holy Prophet after his migration from Makkah. So much so that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr
these people of the Book sympathized with the evil aims of the idolaters
in spite of the fact that their fundamental articles of the Faith-Oneness of Allah
Life-after- death-were the same as those of the Muslims. After the Battle of Badr
they openly began to incite the Quraish and other Arab clans to wreak their vengeance on the Muslims. Thus those Jewish clans set aside their centuries-old friendly and neighborly relations with the people of Al-Madinah. At last when their mischievous actions and breaches of treaties became unbearable
the Holy Prophet attacked the Bani- Qainu-qa'a
the most mischievous of all the other Jewish clans who had conspired with the hypocrites of Al-Madinah and the idolatrous Arab clans to encircle the Believers on all sides. The magnitude of the peril might be judged from the fact that even the life of the Holy Prophet himself was always in danger. Therefore his Companions slept in their armors during that period and kept watch at night to guard against any sudden attack
and whenever the Holy Prophet happened to be out of sight even for a short while
they would at once set out in search of him. (3) This incitement by the Jews added fuel to the fire which was burning in the hearts of the Quraish and they began to make preparations to avenge the defeat they had suffered at Bad. A year after this an army of 3
000 strong marched out of Makkah to invade Al-Madinah and a battle took place at the foot of Mount Uhd. The Holy Prophet came out of Al-Madinah with one thousand men to meet the enemy. While they were marching to the battle-field
three hundred hypocrites deserted the army and returned to Al- Madinah
but there still remained a small band of hypocrites among the seven hundred who accompanied the Holy Prophet. They played their part and did their worst to create mischief and chaos in the ranks of the Believers during the Battle. This was the first clear indication of the fact that within the fold of the Muslim Community there was quite a large number of saboteurs who were always ready to conspire with the external enemies to harm their own brethren. (4) Though the devices of the hypocrites had played a great part in the set-back at Uhud
the weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it. And it was but natural that the Muslims should show signs of moral weakness for they were a new community which had only recently been formed on a new ideology and had not as yet got a thorough moral training. Naturally in this second hard test of their physical and moral strength
some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why a detailed review of the Battle of Uhud was needed to warn the Muslims of their shortcomings and to issue instructions for their reform. It should also be noted that this review of the Battle is quite different from the reviews that are usually made by generals on similar occasions.
This Sura is the sequel to Al-Baqarah and the invitation therein is continued to the people of the Book. In Al- Baqarah the Jews were pointedly invited to accept the Guidance and in this Sura the Christians have particularly been admonished to give up their erroneous beliefs and accept the Guidance of the Quran. At the same time the Muslims have been instructed to nourish the virtues that may enable them to carry out their obligations and spread the Divine Guidance.