Period of Revelation
The internal evidence (vv 27-31 and vv. 34-48) shows that this Sura was revealed in the last stage of the Mission of the Holy Prophet at Makkah and during the same period in which Suras Yunus
Hudand Al- A'arafwere sent down. The manner of speech indicates that a long time had passed since the Holy Prophet had been conveying the Message. On the one hand
his opponents had been contriving different devices to defeat him and his Mission
on the other
his followers had been expressing a desire that by showing a miracle the disbelievers might be brought to the Right Way. In answer
Allah impressed on the Believers that it is not His way to convert people by this method and that they should not lose heart
if He is giving the enemies of the Truth a rope long enough to hang themselves. Otherwise
He is able to show such signs as may bring the dead out of their graves and make them speak (v. 31)
but even then these obdurate people will invent an excuse to explain this away. All this decisive evidence clearly proves that this Sura was revealed during the last stage of the Prophet's Mission at Makkah.
The first verse enunciates the main theme of this Sura
The Message of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) is the very Truth
but it is the fault of the people that they are rejecting it.
This is the pivot on which the whole Sura turns. This is why it has been shown over and over again in different ways that the basic components of the Message Tauhid
Resurrection and Prophethood-are a reality: therefore they should believe sincerely in these for their own moral and spiritual good. They have been warned that they shall incur their own ruin if they reject them
for kufrby itself is sheer folly and ignorance. Moreover
the aim of the Sura is not merely to satisfy the minds but also to appeal to the hearts to accept the Faith. Therefore it does not merely put forward logical arguments in support of the truth of the Message and against the people's wrong notions
but at appropriate intervals it makes frequent use of sympathetic and earnest appeals to win over their hearts by warning them of the consequences of kufrand by holding out the happy rewards of Faith so that the foolish people should give up their obduracy. Besides this
the objections of the opponents have been answered without any mention of them
and those doubts which are proving a hindrance in the way of the Message or were being created by the opponents have been removed. At the same time
the Believers; who had been passing through long and hard ordeal and were feeling tired
and waiting anxiously for Allah's succour
have been comforted and filled with hope and courage.