The Evolution of Heavens
by Dr. M. Bucaille
Having called modern concepts on the formation of the Universe
to mind, reference was made to the evolution that took place, starting
with primary nebula through to the formation of galaxies, stars and (for
the solar system) the appearance of planets beginning with the Sun at a
certain stage of its evolution. Modern data lead us to believe that in the
solar system, and more generally in the Universe itself, this evolution is
How can anybody who is aware of these ideas fail to make a comparison with certain
statements found in the Qur'an in which the manifestations of divine Omnipotence are
The Qur'an reminds us several times that: "(God) subjected the sun and the moon: each
one runs its course to an appointed term."
This sentence is to be found in sura 13, verse 2; sura 31, verse 29; sura 35, verse 13 and
sura 39, verse 5.
In addition to this, the idea of a settled place is associate with the concept of a
destination place in sura 36, verse 38: "The Sun runs its course to a settled place.
This is the decree of the All Mighty, the Full of Knowledge."
'Settled place' is the translation of the word mustaqarr and there can be no doubt
that the idea of an exact place is attached to it.
How do these statements fare when compared with data established by modern science?
The Qur'an gives an end to the Sun for its evolution and a destination place. It also
provides the Moon with a settled place. To understand the possible meanings of these
statements, we must remember what modern knowledge has to say about the evolution of the
stars in general and the Sun in particular, and (by extension) the celestial bodies that
automatically followed its movement through space, among them the Moon.
The Sun is a star that is roughly 4.5 billion years old, according to experts in
astrophysics. It is possible to (distinguish a stage in its evolution, as one can for all
the stars. At present, the Sun is at an early stage, characterized by the transformation
of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. Theoretically, this present stage should last another
5.5 billion years according to calculations that allow a total of 10 billion years for the
duration of the primary stage in a star of this kind. It has already been shown, in the
case of these other stars, that this stage gives way to a second period characterized by
the completion of the transformation of hydrogen into helium, with the resulting expansion
of its external layers and the cooling of the Sun. In the final stage, its light is
greatly diminished and density considerably increased; this is to be observed in the type
of star known as a 'white dwarf'.
The above dates are only of interest in as far as they give a rough estimate of the time
factor involved, what is worth remembering and is really the main point of the above, is
the notion of an evolution. Modern data allow us to predict that, in a few billion years,
the conditions prevailing in the solar system will not be the same as they are today. Like
other stars whose transformations have been recorded until they reached their final stage,
it is possible to predict an end to the Sun.
The second verse quoted above (sura 36, verse 38) referred to the Sun running its course
towards a place of its own.
Modern astronomy has been able to locate it exactly and has even given it a name, the
Solar Apex: the solar system is indeed evolving in space towards a point situated in the
Constellation of Hercules (alpha lyrae) whose exact location is firmly established; it is
moving at a speed already ascertained at something in the region of 12 miles per second.
All these astronomical data deserve to be mentioned in relation to the two verses from the
Qur'an. Since it is possible to state that they appear to agree perfectly with modern
The Expansion of the Universe
The expansion of the Universe is the most imposing discovery of modern science. Today
it is a firmly established concept and the only debate centres around the way this is
It was first suggested by the general theory of relativity and is backed up by physics in
the examination of the galactic spectrum; the regular movement towards the red section of
their spectrum may be explained by the distancing of one galaxy from another. Thus the
size of the Universe is probably constantly increasing and this increase will become
bigger the further away the galaxies are from us. The speeds at which these celestial
bodies are moving may, in the course of this perpetual expansion, go from fractions of the
speed of light to speeds faster than this.
The following verse of the Qur'an (sura 51, verse 47) where God is speaking, may perhaps
be compared with modern ideas:
"The heaven, We have built it with power. Verily. We are expanding it."
'Heaven' is the translation of the word sama' and this is exactly the
extra-terrestrial world that is meant.
'We are expanding it' is the translation of the plural present participle musi'una
of the verb ausa'a meaning 'to make wider, more spacious, to extend, to expand'.
Some translators who were unable to grasp the meaning of the latter provide translations
that appear to me to be mistaken, e.g. "we give generously" (R. Blachere).
Others sense the meaning, but are afraid to commit themselves: Ramidullah in his
translation of the Qur'an talks of the widening of the heavens and space, but he includes
a question mark. Finally, there are those who arm themselves with authorized scientific
opinion in their commentaries and give the meaning stated here. This is true in the case
of the Muntakab, a book of commentaries edited by the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs,
Cairo. It refers to the expansion of the Universe in totally unambiguous terms.