GLOSSARY OF ISLAMIC TERMS

Compiled by Ishaq Zahid

Copyright 1998-2003 Sound Vision All rights reserved.

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Eid Al-Adha

A four-day festival that completes the rites of pilgrimage and takes place on the 10th-13th of Dhul Hijjah (the 10th is the day of Nahr and 11th-13th are the days of Tashriq.) Literally means "the feast of the sacrifice." This feast commemorates Prophet Ibrahim's obedience to Allah by being prepared to sacrifice his only son Ismel, peace be on both of them. See Holy Quran, as-Saffaat (37:100-103).

Eid Al-Fitr

Three day festival marking the end of Ramadan. It takes place on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.
 
 

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Fadal (Riba)

A type of interest. Taking something of superior quality in exchange for giving less of the same kind of thing of poorer quality. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqarah (2:275-280), Ale-Imran (3:130).

Fai

War booty gained without fighting.

Fajr

"The Dawn". The time of the first obligatory prayer (Salah). It can be prayed at any time between the first light of dawn and just before sunrise. Also called Subh (morning). See Surah 89 of the Holy Qur'an.

Faqeeh

An Islamic scholar who can give a legal opinion or judgement.

Fard 'Ain

An action which is obligatory on every Muslim.

Fard bi al-Kifayah

It signifies a collective duty of the Muslim community so that if some people carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy; but if no one carries it out all incur a collective guilt.

Fasad
 

Fasad, literally 'corruption', in Qur'anic terminology, means creating disorder and corruption on earth by following a path other than God's. Islam maintains that true peace and happiness emanate only through the observance of God's commands and through making a conscious effort to see that His laws alone are implemented in every sphere of life. Fasad occurs when man violates God's laws and disobeys Him. Fasad may therefore be partial as well as total; partial when one disregards God's law in one aspect of life while acknowledging His sovereignty in other spheres. If a society is based on the denial of God, that society is bound to be a corrupt and exploitative society - hence full of fasad.

Fasiq

transgressor, evil doer, disobedient. The one who commits fisq.

Fatwa

A legal verdict given on a religious basis. The sources on which a fatwa is based are the Holy Qur'an, and the Sunnah of the Prophet.

Fawahish

Fawahish applies to all those acts whose abominable character is self-evident. In the Qur'an all extra-marital sexual relationships, sodomy, nudity, false accusation of unchastity, and taking as one's wife a woman who had been married to one's father, are specifically reckoned as shameful deeds. In Hadith, theft, taking intoxicating drinks and begging have been characterized as fawahish as have many other brazenly evil and indecent acts.

Fidya

Compensation for missing or wrongly practicing necessary acts of worship. Fidya usually takes the form of donating money, foodstuffs, or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara (making amends).

Fiqh

Islamic jurisprudence.

 

Fi sabil Allah

Fi sabil Allah (in the way of Allah) is a frequently used expression in the Qur'an which emphasizes that good acts should be done exclusively to please God. Generally the expression has been used in the Qur'an in connection with striving or spending for charitable purposes.

 Fisq

Fisq is transgression. It consists of disobedience to the command of God.

Fitnah

Fitnah has been used in the Quran in two meanings. It refers, firstly, to persecution, to a situation in which the believers are harassed and intimidated because of their religious convictions. Secondly, it refers to the state of affairs wherein the object of obedience is other than the One True God.

Furqan

Furqan signifies that which enables one to distinguish between true and false; between real and fake.