GLOSSARY OF ISLAMIC TERMS

Compiled by Ishaq Zahid
Copyright 1998-2003 Sound Vision
All rights reserved.

 
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S.A.W. See Sallallahu 'Alaihe wa Sallam.
Sabbath Sabbath, which means Saturday, was declared for the Israelites as the holy day of the week. God declared the Sabbath as a sign of the perpetual covenant between God and Israel. (Exodus 31:12-16.) The Israelites were required to strictly keep the Sabbath which meant that they may not engage in any worldly activity; they may not cook, nor make their slaves or cattle serve them. Those who violated these rules were to be put to death. The Israelites, however, publicly violated these rules. For further details, see Surah 7.
Sabiqoon See Muqarraboon.
Sabr Sabr is a comprehensive term having various shades of meaning. It implies (a) patience in the sense of being thorough, dedicated and devoted, (b) constancy, perseverance, steadfastness and firmness of purpose, (c) disciplined and planned effort with confidence and belief in the mission itself  and (d) a cheerful attitude of acceptance and understanding under suffering and hardship and in times of strife and violance, and thankfulness to God in happiness, success and chievement.
Sadaqa Anything given away in charity for the pleasure of Allah.
Saffah A verandah attached to the Prophet's Masjid in Madina where poor Muslims, including some of the most exalted companions, used to sleep.
Sahabi A companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.). Plural: Sahabiyeen.
Sahih Bukhari A book of Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Bukhari.
Sahih Muslim A book of Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Muslim.
Sa'i Going seven times between the small hills of Safa and Marwa; an essential rite of Hajj and Umra.
Sajdah
1. Prostration. The act of prostration, particularly in the Salat.
2. As-Sajda: Surah 32 of the Qur'an.
Sajdah Sahu Prostration to recompense forgetting a required act of Salah.
Salah Prayers. There are five daily obligatory prayers. These prayers and their time zones are:
1. Fajr (morning prayer); After dawn but before sunrise;
2. Duhr (early afternoon or noon prayer); early afternoon till late afternoon;
3. 'Asr (late afternoon prayer) late afternoon prayer till sunset;
4. Maghrib (sunset prayer); just after sunset;
5. Isha (late evening prayer); late evening till late at night.

Consult a prayer manual for full details. Each prayer consists of a fixed set of standings, bowings, prostrations and sittings in worship to Allah.

Salat al-Janaza Funeral prayer. The prayer is done in standing position only and consist of four takbirs: 1. After the first Takbir, read Al-Fatihah. 2. After the second takbir, recite Tashahhud and Salat al-Ibrahimiya. 3. After the third Takbir, pray for the deceased person, his or her relatives, and all Muslims in general. 4. After the fourth Takbir, finish the prayer by uttering Assalamu Alaikum while turning to the right.
Salat al-Khawf Salat al-Khawf means Prayer in the state of insecurity. For its procedure see Surah al-Nisa 4:102.
Salih Salih, from the root S-L-H meaning to reconcile, to put things in order, signifies behavior that is righteous, just and dignified. 'Amal salih, honorable or righteous action, is often combined in the Qur'an with Iman and made a condition for success in this world, as well as in the Hereafter. A prophet of Islam, peace be on him.
Sallallahu 'Alaihe wa Sallam (S.A.W.) "May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him." This is said whenever the name of prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) is mentioned or read. Th equivalent English phrase is usually abbreviated as S.A.W. (peace be upon him).
Samad (as) One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. It means Absolute, Eternal, and Everlasting. It refers to the One to Whom all created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not dependent on anything or anyone for any need. The Most Perfect in His Attributes.
Sariya A small army sent by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) in which he did not personally take part.
Sawm Fasting. Plural: Siyam.
Sha`a'ir Allah Sha`a'ir Allah refer to all those rites which, in opposition to polytheism and outright disbelief and atheism, are the characteristic symbols of exclusive devotion to God.
Sha'ban The eighth month of the Islamic calendar.
Shahid Shahid in Islamic parlance means martyr. Plural: Shuhadaa.
Shaitan Satan. Plural: Shayateen. See Iblis.
Shari'ah Shari'ah signifies the entire Islamic way of life, especially the Law of Islam.
Shawal The tenth month of the Islamic calendar.
Shirk Shirk consists of associating anyone or anything with the Creator either in His being, or attributes, or in the exclusive rights (such as worship) that He has against His creatures.
Sidrat al-Muntaha "The lote-tree of the furthest limit." A tree over the seventh Heaven near Paradise, the place where form ends and beyond which no created being may pass. See An-Najm (53:14-18).
Sijjin It is a "prison" where the records of the evil doers are kept. See Al-Mutafifeen (83:7-9).
Siratul-Mustaqeem "The straight path," the path that the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) demonstrated to mankind by way of the Holy Qur'an. The path that leads to the Paradise.
Siwak A piece of branch or root of a tree called al-Arak used as a toothbrush.
Subhan Allah "Glory be to Allah."
Subhana wa Ta'ala "May He be Glorified and Exalted."
Suffa (as) A shaded place in Masjid al-Rasool, in Madinah where poor Sahaba used to take shelter during Prophet Muhammad's time.
Suhur A meal taken before Fajr in the month of Ramadan to begin fasting.
Sunnah Ahadeeth and the way of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).
Sunnah Prayers Sunnah Prayers are prayers which are considered recommended in view of the fact that the Prophet (S.A.W.) either performed them often and/or made statements about their meritorious character.
Surah A chapter of the Qur'an. Literally means "a form". There are 114 Surahs in the Holy Quran. Plural: Suwar.