GLOSSARY OF ISLAMIC TERMS
Compiled by Ishaq Zahid
©1998-2003 Sound Vision
All rights reserved.
Plural of Ghazwa. See Ghazwa.
Sunset. The fourth obligatory Prayer of the day. It consists of
three Rakahs and can be offered between just after sunset and before the
stars appear in the sky.
Mahr (bridal gift) signifies the amount of payment that is settled
between the two spouses at the time of marriage, and which the husband
is required to make to his bride. Mahr seems to symbolize the financial
responsbility that a husband assumes towards his wife by virtue of entering
into the contract of marriage.
A man whom a woman can never marry because of closeness of relationship
(e.g. father, brother, uncle, son, etc.). Her husband is also her Mahram.
"The Most Glorious." One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah.
Fire worshippers. These people lived mainly in Persia and the eastern
Arabian peninsula in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur'an,
Makr signifies a secret strategy of which the victim has no inkling
until the decisive blow is struck. Until then, the victim is under the
illusion that everything is in good order. See Holy Qur'an, Aali-Imran
"Angels". Another name for Suratul Fatir, Surah 35 of the Holy Qur'an.
Al-Manat was the chief idol worshipped by the Khuza'ah and Hudhayl
Ma'ruf refers to the conduct which is reckoned fair and equitable
by the generality of disinterested people.
The boundary of Al-Masjid al-Haram in Makkah. It is prohibited to kill
any game, or to damage any plant or tree, or to act in any manner that
will violate the sanctity of the Holy Masjid.
Masjid al-Aqsa (al)
The 'Furthest Mosque' built by the early Muslims in Jerusalem, on or
near where the Temple of Solomon once stood. See Baitul-Maqdis.
Masjid Al-Haram (al)
The Grand Masjid in Makkah. The Ka'bah (the Qiblah of the Muslims)
is situated within it.
Masjid an-Nabawi (al)
Another name for the Masjid ar-Rasool in Madinah. It is the second
greatest Masjid in Islam, the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Makkah,
and the third being the Masjid al-Aqsa in Al-Quds (Jerusalem).
Masjid al-Rasool (al)
Literally means protector. Allah T'ala describes Himself as the Maula
of the believers. See The Qur'an, Al-Baqarah (2:256), Aali 'Imran (3:152),
Al-Hajj (22:78). Maula also has the meaning of 'master'.
1. Satan is the Maula to the unbelievers.
2. The master is a Maula to his slave. Maula is also the term used
to describe a freed slave who remains as part of the family.
Plural of Miqat. See Miqat.
Prayer niche of a Masjid, in front of which the Imam stands when leading
the congregational prayers.
Steps on which the Imam stands to deliver the Khutbah (address) on
the day of the Jumah (Friday).
A place five miles from Makkah and approximately ten miles from 'Arafat.
An essential place to visit during the Hajj.
Migat (pl. mawaqeet) denotes the points which an outsider intending
to perform Pilgrimage may cross only in the state of consecration (ihram).
These points were fixed according to directions from God.
The Night Journey of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) from Makkah to Jerusalem
and then through the realms of the seven heavens, beyond the limit of forms,
the Sidrat al-Muntaha, to within a bow-span's length or nearer to the presence
of Allah. See the Qur'an, Al-Isra (17:1), Bukhari Hadith 345, Vol. 1, 227,
Miskin (pl. masakin) denotes helplessness, destitution. Thus masakin
are those who are in greater distress than the ordinary poor people. Explaining
this word the Prophet (S.A.W.) declared that masakin are those who cannot
make both ends meet, who face acute hardship and yet whose sense of self-respect
prevents them from asking for aid from others and whose outward demeanour
fails to create the impression that they are deserving of help.
The man who calls the Adhan loudly before each obligatory Salat, calling
the people to prayer.
An Islamic scholar of Ahadeeth. Plural: Muhaditheen.
Muhammad (peace be upon him), the last Messenger of God.
1. The first month of the Islamic calendar.
2. An act that is strictly forbidden in Islam.
Muhsanat means 'protected women'. It has been used in the Qur'an in
two different meanings. First, it has been used in the sense of 'married
women', that is, those who enjoy the protection of their husbands. Second,
it has been used in the sense of those who enjoy the protection of families
as opposed to slave-girls.
One who takes active part in a Jihad. Plural: Mujahideen. See Jihad.
Munkar wa Nakir (peace be on them)
2. Al-Mumin: Another name for Al-Ghafir, Surah 40 of the Qur'an.
The names of the two angels who will question the dead in the graves.
Literally means, "those who have been brought near." One the Day of
Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil into three
1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who will be nearest to Allah.
Also described as the Sabiqoon, meaning "those who outstrip the rest."
2. Ashab al-Maimana - literally means, "the Companions of the Right."
The righteous people destined to enter Paradise.
3. Ashab al-Mashama - literally, "the Companions of the Left." These
will be the inheritors of the Hellfire. See Al-Waqi'ah (56:11-56).
A person who commits Shirk. See Shirk.
A person who accepts Islam as his or her way of life.
An act in Islam that is recommended, but not obligatory.
A temporary marriage. A custom common in Arabia. It was abrogated
by the Prophet (S.A.W.) at Khaibar, as is related by Ali ibn Abi Talib
in Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari.
Muttaqi is derived from its noun taqwa, which signifies God-consciousness,
a sense of responsibility and accountability, dedication and awe - those
things that prompt one to fulfil one's duty. Taqwa, or heedfulness, is
the main criterion by which God values the deeds of a Muslim (49:13).
A site between 'Arafat and Mina where the pilgrims spend the night
of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah during Hajj.