GLOSSARY OF ISLAMIC TERMS

Compiled by Ishaq Zahid
Copyright 1998-2003 Sound Vision
All rights reserved.

 
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Jahanam Most commonly understood to mean Hell. In fact, it is one of the levels of Hell. There are seven levels of Hellfire:
1. Jaheem - the shallowest level of Hell. It is reserved for those who believed in Allah and His Messenger (S.A.W.), but who ignored His commands.
2. Jahanam - a deeper level where the idol-worshippers are to be sent on the Day of Judgement.
3. Sa'ir - is reserved for the worshippers of fire.
4. Saqar - this is where those who did not believe in Allah will be sent on the Day of Judgement.
5. Ladha - will be the home of the Jews.
6. Hawiyah - will be the abode of the Christians.
7. Hutama - the deepest level of Hellfire. This is where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (Hypocrites), wether they be mankind or Jinn, for they outwardly appear to accept, but inwardly reject Allah and His Messenger (S.A.W.).
Jaheem See Jahanam.
Jahiliyah Jahiliyah, literally 'ignorance', is a concise expression for the pagan practice of the days before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). Jahiliyah denotes all those world-views and ways of life which are based on rejection or disregard of heavenly guidance communicated to mankind through the Prophets and Messengers of God; the attitude of treating human life - either wholly or partly - as independent of the directives of  God.
Ayyam al-Jahiliyah, or 'The Days of Ignorance' in the books of history, indicate the period before the Prophethood of Muhammad when the people in Arabia forgot the teachings of their Prophets and indulged in stupid practices.
Jamra White hot coal. The term used to describe the three pillars built od stone at Mina. Plural: Jimar.
Jamarat Al-Aqaba One of the three stone pillars at Mina. One of the rites of Hajj is to throw pebbles at these stone pillars, which represent Satan.
 Jannah Paradise. A created abode in the Hereafter for those who believe in the Unity of Allah and in all His Prophets and Messengers, and who follow the way of life of the Prophets. Jannah has eight gates around it and each of these eight gates has eleven doors. The names of the eight gates are:
1. Bab al-Iman.
2. Bab al-Jihad.
3. Bab al-Kadhemean al-Gaidh.
4. Bab ar-Raiyan.
5. Bab ar-Radiyeen.
6. Bab as-Sadaqa.
7. Bab at-Taubah.
8. Bab as-Salat.
Janaba The state of a person after sexual discharge, whether intentional or otherwise. A person may not perform Salah (Prayer) or recite or touch the Qur'an until he performs Ghusl or Tayammum.
Jewj wa Majewj See Gog and Magog.
Jibt Jibt signifies a thing devoid of any true basis and dereft of  usefulness. In Islamic terminology the various forms of sorcery, divination and soothsaying, in short all superstitions, are called jibt.
Jihad Jihad literally means 'to strive' or 'to exert to the utmost.' In islamic parlance it signifies all forms of striving, including armed struggle, aimed at making the Word of God prevail.
Jinn Jinn are an independent species of creation about which little is known except that unlike man, who was created out of earth, the jinn were created out of fire. But like man, a Divine Message has also been addressed to them and they too have been endowed with the capacity, again like man, to choose between good and evil, between obedience or disobedience to God. See Surah 72 of the Holy Qur'an.
Jizyah Unbelievers are required to pay jizyah (poll tax) in lieu of security provided to them as the Dhimmis (Protected People) of  an Islamic state, and their exemption from military service and payment of Zakah. Jizyah symbolizes the submission of the unbelievers to the suzerainty of Islam.
Jum'ah "Friday." The Muslims' day of gathering together, when all Muslim males must go to the Masjid to hear the Friday Khutba (sermon) and to do the Jum'ah Salat (prayer), which is prayed instead of Dhur. Surah 62 of the Holy Qur'an.
Jumada al-Akhira The sixth month of the Islamic calendar.
 Junub Junub - a person having Janaba - means to be in a state of  ceremonial impurity or defilement. A male becomes junub on having sexual intercourse or simply on the emission of semen in sleep or otherwise. A female also becomes junub as a result of  sexual intercourse as well as when she is menstruating or having postnatal bleeding. These are the general causes of janaba, which is also referred to in the books of jurisprudence as hadath akbar. A full bath is required for a junub to receive purification or tahara, without which a man or woman is not allowed to touch or read the Qur'an, enter the mosque or offer the prayers. In the absence of water, however, one is allowed to resort to tayammum. Tayammum substitutes for both a full bath (ghusl) and ablution (wudu).